The Last Coal Burner

Macphail
25th October 2009, 22:49
Whilst on the Gazana, dry docking in Sembawang in 1984, There was a Australian flagged ship, TNT Carpentaria, a coal burner.
Having a chat with the Aussie Chief, he said that the main problem was getting rid of the ash. They seemed to have a good time with plenty R&R in Singapore. The Gulf of Carpentaria has a massive reserve of open cast coal.
How do the economics work out for a coal burner ?.

John

Billieboy
26th October 2009, 09:46
Coal burners are pretty uneconomical, if the coal is free or very low cost, then it can compete with heavy fuel oil at $380/ton. One still needs extra manpower in the engine/boiler room and an ash dumping system, this can be a water powered ejector, working off the high pressure salt water main.

surfaceblow
26th October 2009, 12:44
"In July, 1983, the Quincy Shipbuilding Division of General Dynamics delivered to New England Electric System the SS ENERGY INDEPENDENCE. This is the first coal burning steamship to have been built since 1929. She is now at sea hauling coal between Hampton Roads and two Massachusetts ports. In August, 1983, the Maritime Commission released a report on the favorable economics of coal burning ships. The report intimates that others are following the route of the ENERGY INDEPENDENCE. In fact, overseas, there are six ships now under construction that will be coal fired". The cost savings was that the coal was loaded with the cargo.

In 1994 the SS Energy Independence, renamed SS Energy Enterprise after International Shipholding Corporation purchased the U.S. flag conveyor built-equipped self-loading coal carrier that was being chartered to an electric utility company.

I do not remember any extra manning in the Engine Department for the coal handing since it was automated. I do remember having problems with the auger getting plugged which meant crawling in the equipment to dislodge the coal that worked its way between the auger and pipe.

kewl dude
26th October 2009, 21:43
Yes, and when that coal auger jammed it could sound like the loudest woman ever screaming for help, easier heard topside than below.

Greg Hayden

Steve Hodges
29th October 2009, 16:32
What was the burning arrangement ? pulverised and blown in, chain grate, or was the above mentioned auger feeding into the furnace? Interested to know.

surfaceblow
31st October 2009, 16:57
I did not want to give misinformation its been about twenty years since I visited the Energy Independence. I went to look into my notes but I did not find them. I did find a few pictures from a Keystone pamphlet of the Energy Independence.

I found a bunch of references to SNAME papers written about coal fired marine steam plants:

#1045 - A Coal-Fired Fluidized-Bed Steam Generator for Marine Application Author(s):J. T. Schroppe, and R. L. Gamble
Number Of Pages:17
Paper Abstract:In order to bring to the forefront a realistic, practical development of the fluidized-bed steam generator for marine use, a series of progressive steps is presently occurring. This paper sets forth how it is being accomplished as well as the technological difficulties that have already been overcome and those that are yet to be resolved. With the advent of uncertain fuel quality and supplies, the fluidized-bed steam generator will provide the versatility the marine industry requires in the future. The paper discusses the development of burning high-sulfur oil or coal in a fluidized-bed combustion boiler. It also describes the industrial experience (since 1979) of a 100 000 Ib/hr (45 455 kg/hr) system at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. Additionally, the paper outlines development steps necessary to adapt industrial fluidized-bed technology, as found at Georgetown, for marine service and its practical application concerning the bed dynamics for open-ocean use. Design features involving items such as start-up techniques and normal operating conditions and procedures are described, including bed temperature control, load following techniques, and automatic control requirements for matching steam conditions and minimizing stack emissions. Operating personnel requirements and a brief overview of overall economics are also given.

#1062 - A Survey of Marine Steam Propulsion Plants for Commercial Ships in the 1980's Author(s):W. D. Burton, Jr.
Number Of Pages:19
Paper Abstract:This paper presents a quantitative analysis of four commercial marine steam propulsion plants utilizing both reheat and nonreheat cycles at a power level considered representative of current levels in commercial tankers. Current and future trends in marine steam propulsion plants, such as coal-fired ships and fluidized-bed combustion boilers, are examined. The significant design aspects of heat recovery equipment utilized in each cycle are addressed. A comparison of annual fuel and lube oil costs projected for each steam cycle is made with a modern slow-speed diesel engine.

Joe

chadburn
31st October 2009, 18:13
Always thought that the (two?) Australian coal carrying coal fired vessels previously mentioned were of the fluidized bed arrangement, what happened to them?

Macphail
31st October 2009, 22:53
I did not want to give misinformation its been about twenty years since I visited the Energy Independence. I went to look into my notes but I did not find them. I did find a few pictures from a Keystone pamphlet of the Energy Independence.

I found a bunch of references to SNAME papers written about coal fired marine steam plants:

#1045 - A Coal-Fired Fluidized-Bed Steam Generator for Marine Application Author(s):J. T. Schroppe, and R. L. Gamble
Number Of Pages:17
Paper Abstract:In order to bring to the forefront a realistic, practical development of the fluidized-bed steam generator for marine use, a series of progressive steps is presently occurring. This paper sets forth how it is being accomplished as well as the technological difficulties that have already been overcome and those that are yet to be resolved. With the advent of uncertain fuel quality and supplies, the fluidized-bed steam generator will provide the versatility the marine industry requires in the future. The paper discusses the development of burning high-sulfur oil or coal in a fluidized-bed combustion boiler. It also describes the industrial experience (since 1979) of a 100 000 Ib/hr (45 455 kg/hr) system at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. Additionally, the paper outlines development steps necessary to adapt industrial fluidized-bed technology, as found at Georgetown, for marine service and its practical application concerning the bed dynamics for open-ocean use. Design features involving items such as start-up techniques and normal operating conditions and procedures are described, including bed temperature control, load following techniques, and automatic control requirements for matching steam conditions and minimizing stack emissions. Operating personnel requirements and a brief overview of overall economics are also given.

#1062 - A Survey of Marine Steam Propulsion Plants for Commercial Ships in the 1980's Author(s):W. D. Burton, Jr.
Number Of Pages:19
Paper Abstract:This paper presents a quantitative analysis of four commercial marine steam propulsion plants utilizing both reheat and nonreheat cycles at a power level considered representative of current levels in commercial tankers. Current and future trends in marine steam propulsion plants, such as coal-fired ships and fluidized-bed combustion boilers, are examined. The significant design aspects of heat recovery equipment utilized in each cycle are addressed. A comparison of annual fuel and lube oil costs projected for each steam cycle is made with a modern slow-speed diesel engine.

Joe

Thanks for that Joe,

The economics it the old days must have been bad, the good Welsh coal had to be transported to the coal bunkering stations around the world, Colombo and Aden, for example.

The emissions to the atmosphere must have been horrendous, in this months Nautilus publication, there is a photograph of a ship with a funnel hood fitted to catch emissions whilst alongside in a US port.

John

Billieboy
1st November 2009, 09:29
I seem to remember reading a paper on fluidized bed coal burning, way back in the dim and distant past. I think that the PF system was rejected for marine use fairly smartly. I cannot remember if the FB system was only for on Passage use; or that it was also running on low load (banked), for port use because of emissions. Regarding the type of coal, there is a great difference in CV between Australian and Welsh Steam coals, you can forget Chinese and German Brown coals!

spongebob
1st November 2009, 12:00
I believe earlier BHP coal fired ships' boilers were fired with Babcock-Detroit roto-grate chain grate stokers and fed by spreader feeders.


Bob

david freeman
5th November 2009, 19:10
was the Paddle ship waverly coal fired? If so when was she converted.

James_C
5th November 2009, 19:35
She was, and was converted to Oil firing circa 1953.

spongebob
5th November 2009, 21:41
James Beech reported on 6/7/09 in the Otago Daily Times as follows

Quote
TSS Earnslaw set sail on her maiden cruise of the 2009-10 seasons on Saturday after a month-long annual maintenance survey.
The 96-year-old "Lady of the Lake", the last passenger-carrying coal-fired steamship remaining in the southern hemisphere, carried about 200 passengers and was skippered by Steve Donaghey.
Work between May 29 and July 3 included the installation of combustion fans on both main steam boilers to optimise coal-burning efficiency and reduce emissions.
The historic vessel underwent regular maintenance to her boilers and engines and had a new butyl covering installed over the promenade deck roof.
The vintage twin-screw steamship makes daily trips to the Walter Peak High Country Farm at noon and 2pm.
The frequency will increase to six daily trips from November 1.
The category one heritage protected steamer returns to the Kelvin Heights Slipway for her biennial overhaul, out of the water, in June 2010.
A week of festivities is planned by Real Journeys to celebrate the Earnslaw's centenary, in October 2012.
The commemoration will coincide with the 150th anniversary of the European discovery of gold in Queenstown and Arrow town.
Photos by James Beech; prints available from otagoimages.co.nz.

Un quote

Bob

CEYLON220
18th November 2009, 20:10
As all the above deal with the MN could anyone tell me what the last coal burner and Furnace fuel oil war ship in the RN were and the dates that they ceased to use these fuels----just curious!!!!

Peter B
19th November 2009, 02:26
This old lady, the Hjejlen, commenced service in 1861 and she is still going stroing! Apart from replacing a crank shaft in 1946, the steam engine is basically the original. The boiler have been replaced three times, in 1900, 1947 and 2005:
http://www.hjejlen.com/cust/376/showpage.asp?IEITEM=1851

GRBOWLER
13th June 2013, 22:51
I know that this was a very old post but I will try anyhow to bring back the subject with a new line.
The good old SS Badger is still steaming on Lake Michigan with her four coal fired Foster Wheeler boilers.
I am interested in any information from anyone who has experience with modern clean coal for fuel marine projects.