Soviet Merchant Marine Losses in WW2 (Black Sea)

From SN Guides
Jump to: navigation, search

Work in progress - Entry started August 2009 by Andrey Nelogov as Soviet Merchant Marine Losses in WW2 (Black Sea, Caspian and Pacific) and now should be divided due to size of the article. Sorry for inconvenience.

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

In memory of all people who were lost in WW2: Soviet Holidaymakers in Crimea (23-08-1934). Photographer is unknown.

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination


Source http://militera.lib.ru/research/mmf/index.html

Download http://militera.lib.ru/h/0/chm/mmf.zip Russian language

Enemies actions in AREA Air Force Submarines Fleet Mines Artillery Several reasons Weather conditions Other reasons Captured by enemies Captured in Soviet ports Destroyed by Soviet Army TOTAL
Arctic and Atlantic 4 22 4 6 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 41
Baltic 39 1 5 20 6 3 6 0 35 22 3 140
Black 57 5 7 14 2 2 3 3 0 0 18 111
Caspian 5 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 0 0 0 14
Pacific 2 8 0 1 2 0 7 3 0 0 0 23
TOTAL 107 36 16 41 10 7 21 13 35 22 21 329


Type of ships Cargo ships Cargo-passengers Icebreakers Tankers Science Rescue and Port Others TOTAL B.R.T.
Arctic and Atlantic Oceans 27 2 2 2 2 4 2 41 119600
Baltic Sea 54 14 7 0 0 5 0 80 127800
Black Sea 40 23 5 7 0 10 8 93 170900
Caspian Sea 5 0 0 2 0 1 6 14 17400
Pacific and Indian Oceans 18 2 1 2 0 0 0 23 84900
SUBTOTAL 144 41 15 13 2 20 16 251 520600
Captured by enemies abroad 32 1 0 0 0 0 2 35 94200
Captured in Soviet Ports 16 3 0 0 0 0 3 22 29500
Destroyed by Red Army 11 3 2 0 0 3 2 21 54000
SUBTOTAL 59 7 2 0 0 3 7 78 177700
TOTAL 203 48 17 13 2 23 23 329 698300

Information about ARCTIC, ATLANTIC AND BALTIC SEA IN DETAILS is available at Soviet Merchant Marine Losses in WW2

Special Reports: A tragedy in Baltic. Evacuation of Baltic Fleet, Soviet troops and Civilians from Tallinn to Leningrad on 28-30.08.1941, London Reefers and Volgoles Type of Andre Marti Shipyard are available at Soviet Merchant Marine Losses in WW2




BLACK SEA IN DETAILS[edit]

work in progress

1941


Ships, which were destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement from Odessa:


30.06.1941 – Pskov (Псков – City in North-Western part of Russia) / Cargo ship / 3549 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co.

30.06.1941 – Orel (Орел – Eagle) / Cargo ship / 5152 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co.

30.06.1941 – Plekhanov (Плеханов – main Russian theorist of Revolution) / Cargo ship / 3344 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co.

30.06.1941 – Voikov (Войков) / Cargo ship / 2052 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co.

30.06.1941 – Peter the Great (Петр Великий – Russian Tsar of Romanov dynasty) / Steam ship / 7200 BRT.


End of list Ships, which were destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement from Odessa


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Map 1: Crimean Peninsula

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Map 2: Kerch Gulf

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Map 3: East Part of Black Sea

18.07.1941 – Kola (Кола) / Cargo ship / 2654 BRT / Kerch strait / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Mines / She was lost on a way from Novorossiysk to Feodosia / 3 crew were lost / 30 crew were rescued.

23.07.1941 – Adzharia (Аджария – one of Soviet Autonomous Republics) / Cargo passenger ship / 4727 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.D.F.Kaminsky / Odessa Gulf; She was sunk by German aircrafts. 4 crew were lost (see special report: Adzharia type ships for Black Sea Crimea Lines)

27.07.1941 – Lenin (Ленин, ex-Simbirsk) / Cargo passenger ship / 2713 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.I.S.Borisenko; In voyage from Sevastopol to Yalta / Mines or submarine attack (reason unknown) / Complement: unknown (as per various sources min / max 1250 / 5200) / 43 crew and about 600 passengers were rescued / at least 49 crew and 900 passengers were lost (according to unofficial sources up to 4600 passengers were lost).


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Simbirsk in maiden voyage at Port of Libava (Photo dated on 03.11.1909)


Note: Lenin (ex-Simbirsk).[edit]

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Riviera seen from the sea. Steam ship Lenin in Sochi. Post card issued by Izogiz Publishing 1934

Lenin. First page of Sovtorgflot Annual Magazine (1927)

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Riviera seen from the sea. Steam ship Lenin in Sochi. Post card issued by Izogiz Publishing 1934

LOA 94,80 m / B 12,60 m / D 5,70 m / 16,5 knots / Blt 1909 in Danzig, Germany; Owners: Dobrovolny Flot (Доброфлот), Russia for Cargo passenger line between Russian Black Sea Ports and Far East until 1914).

On 07.09.1923 re-named Lenin. First voyage from Vladivostok to Japan with first aid cargoes for Japanese workers – victims of earthquake (value of goods about 200 000 gold roubles). No cargoes were accepted by Japanese Authorities and the ship was returned to Russia. Since 1923 (as per other sources 1925) she was delivered to Black Sea and was operated by Black Sea Department of Sovtorgflot (later Black Sea State Shipping Co.) in service between Russian Black Sea Ports. Steam ship Lenin is mentioned in biography Vladimir Mayakovsky (Russian poet, 1927), Sergey Korolev (Main constructor of space rockets, 1928), fiction literature (К.Жаков «Сквозь строй жизни», И.Ильф и Е.Петров «12 стульев»).

First voyage of Lenin in WW2: 12.07.1941 from Odessa to Mariupol. Second and last voyage: Loading commenced 22.07.1941, loading completed 24.07.1941 at 22:00 / sailed from Mariupol via Sevastopol to Yalta. Complement is unknown. The only 482 passengers had tickets. However a lot of passengers were accepted without tickets – representatives of authorities and members of their families / crew members’ families / children and many others. Up to 1200 people of Red Army reserves were picked up too. She sailed from Mariupol as leader of merchant ships convoy, including Lenin, Voroshilov (Ворошилов), Berezina (Березина) and 2 barges. Engine of Voroshilov was damaged and Lenin had to give her a tow bound Sevastopol. 27.07.1941 Lenin, Voroshilov and another passenger ship Gruzia (Грузия) as well as Navy Boat SKA-026 sailed from Sevastopol to Yalta. On 27.07.1941 at 23:33 the ship received fatal explosion of unknown nature and sank within 7/10 minutes.

According to official sources the loss of Lenin could take place because of navigation mistake of Navy pilot lieutenant I.I.Svistun, who changed the route and sent the ship to Soviet mines area. Lieutenant I.I.Svigun was arrested and shot on 24.08.1941 in accordance with decision of Military Court. However, according to other sources (Gerd Enders. German submarines in Black Sea) the ship was torpedoed and sunk by Romanian submarine DELFINIUS, which is not confirmed by Romanian Navy.

End of Note: Lenin (ex-Simbirsk)


12.08.1941 – Novorossiysk (Новороссийск) / Cargo passenger ship / 1351 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.A.F.Botto / Odessa Gulf / She was heavily damaged and lost in result of German aircraft attack on a way from Kherson to Odessa. No information about losses.

12.08.1941 – Ledokol Nr.5 (Ледокол № 5 – Icebreaker Nr.5) / Icebreaker / 503 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.K.I.Stecenko / Dnepr / Mines / She was lost on a way from Nikolaev to Sevastopol / Master and 21 crew were lost.

13.08.1941 – Polina Osipenko (Полина Осипенко) / Cargo ship / 3925 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Capt.A.A.Orlov / Dnepr / She sailed from Nikolaev (complement over 1000) and was sunk by German aircrafts / 9 crew and passengers were lost.

14.08.1941 – Kharkov (Харьков – Industrial City in Ukraine) / Cargo ship / 6689 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Port of Nikolayev / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.

18.08.1941 – Volochaevka (Волочаевка – Ukrainian town) / Cargo ship / 3817 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Port of Kherson / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.

21.08.1941 – Bryansk (Брянск – Russian City) / Cargo ship / 2823 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.K.S.Goronenko / NW part of Black Sea / She was sunk by German aircrafts while sailing in ballast from Odessa to Sevastopol / No information about losses.

29.08.1941 – Kamenets-Podolsk (Каменец-Подольск) / Cargo ship / 5117 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.L.Logovoy / Kerch / She was sunk by German aircrafts while sailing in ballast from Kerch to Sevastopol / No information about losses.

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

ss Moldavia. Advertising of Sochi State Steamship Company's liner service between Sochi and Sukhum. 1934

14.09.1941 – Moldavia (Молдавия - one of USSR republics) / Cargo passenger ship / 1190 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Tenderovskaya foreland / She was heavily damaged and lost in result of German aircraft. No information about losses.

15.09.1941 – Sovetskaya Bessarabiya (Советская Бессарабия) / Cargo passenger ship / 250 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.A.Kalashnikov / Tenderovskaya foreland / Wrecked / No information about losses.

22.09.1941 – Tayfun (Тайфун) / Tug boat / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.I.K.Omelkov / She was sunk by German aircraft / 2 crew were lost.

30.09.1941 – Pugachev (Пугачев) / Ship’s hull under construction / 2150 BRT / Kerch / She was on tow ms Kuban with cargo of grain on board and was sunk by German aircraft on a way from Kerch to Novorossiysk. No crew were lost.

08.10.1941 – Solombala (Соломбала) / Tug boat / 388 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Mariupol / She was sunk by German artillery when sailed from Mariupol. / No exact information about losses. Mr N.A.Zhukov, Chief of Azov State Shipping Co. was one of passangers, who were lost.


Ships, which were destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement from Mariupol:

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

A Sovtorgflot ship Tovarisch in Round_the_World sailing in 1928-1929. Photo by courtesy of Mr Yuri A.Masher, St.Petersburg

Last shot of Tovarisch in the Port of Mariupol. Photo by courtesy of Klaus, SN member

08.10.1941 – Tovarisch (Товарищ – Comrade) / Sailing ship / 2472 BRT

08.10.1941 – Grozny (Грозный - a Capital of Chechenia-Ingushskaya Autonomy Republic of Soviet Union) / Tanker / 4964 BRT

08.10.1941 – Volgo-Don (Волго-Дон – Canal connecting Volga and Don) / Cargo ship / 956 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co.

08.10.1941 – Floating Dock 2000 tons capacity.


End of list Ships, which were destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement from Mariupol


12.10.1941 – Georgy Sedov (Георгий Седов – Russian Arctic pathfinder, ex Feodosia (Феодосия - Port of Feodosia (1922), Vozrozhdenie (1917), Verkhovny Glavnokomanduyuschiy Veliky Knyaz Nikolay Nikolaevich (1916), Vozrozhdenie (1898) / Cargo passenger ship / 1538 BRT as per Soviet Mercnant Marine Report, Soyuzmorniiproekt, 1989; 859 Tons as per Miramar Ships Index / Azov State Shipping Co. / Port of Taganrog / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.

12.10.1941 – Berdyansk (Бердянск – Ukrainian town) / Cargo passenger ship / 66 BRT (151 passengers) / Far East State Shipping Co. / Port of Eisk / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.

15.10.1941 – Chicherin (Чичерин – Russian revolution leader) / Cargo passenger ship / 1852 BRT / Port of Odessa / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.

15.10.1941 – Adzharets (Аджарец – inhabitant of Adzharia) / Rescue Ship / 200 to / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.

16.10.1941 – Bolshevik (Большевик – a member of Left wing of Russian Social Democracy Party (further Communist Party) / Cargo ship / 1412 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.E.I.Freiman / Karkinitskiy Gulf / She was torpedoed and sunk by German aircraft. Master and 15 crew were lost. 20 crew and passengers were rescued.

17.10.1941 – Leningrad (Ленинград – Russian City, now St.Petersburg) / Cargo ship / 1783 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.F.G.Parkhomenko / Evpatoria / She was sunk in result of German aircrafts attack. No information about losses.

27.10.1941 – Delegat (Делегат – a delegate) / Cargo ship / 979 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.N.Ushakov / Kerch / She was sunk in result of German aircrafts attack. No information about losses.

27.10.1941 – Volodarsky (Володарский – one of Communist Leaders) / Tug boat / 100 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Kerch / She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

29.10.1941 – Uralles (Ураллес – combi Ural – area and mountains in Russia and les – forest) / Cargo ship / 1975 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.I.F.Korotky / Evpatoria / She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

01.11.1941 – Titan (Титан) / Floating coal re-loader / 600 to / Port of Feodosia / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.

04.11.1941 – Rot-Front (Рот-Фронт – Red Front, International Communist Organization) / Cargo Ship / 980 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.K.Subbotin / Kerch / She was sunk by German aircrafts. 13 crew were lost.

05.11.1941 – Rabotnik (Работник – a worker) / Cargo ship / 967 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Sarych / She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Armenia. Post Card 1933


07.11.1941 - Armenia (Армения – One of the USSR Republics) / Cargo passenger ship / 4727 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.Ya.Plaushevsky / Close to Yalta; She was sunk by German aircrafts soon after sailing Sevastopol via Yalta to Tuapse. On 07.11.1941 at 08:00 the ship was torpedoed by German aircraft He-111 of 1 squadron I/KG28 group and sank within 4 minutes. In last voyage she had on board from 5000 to 10000 passengers, including wounded, civilians and military, staff of Central Black Sea Navy Hospital and other military and civil hospitals (total 23), local authorities. In accordance with Officials about 5000 passengers were lost as well as master and crew. 8 passengers were rescued. The lose of Armenia is a biggest catastrophe in Soviet Merchant Marine history. (see special report: Adzharia type ships for Black Sea Crimea Lines)

09.11.1941 – Desna (Десна) / Cargo ship / Capt.D.S.Sariev / Novorossiysk / Mines / No information about losses

13.11.1941 – Floating Dock 4000 tons capacity / Port of Kerch / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.

15.11.1941 – Gornyak (Горняк - Miner) / Cargo ship / 968 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Capt.I.M.Pavlenko / Kerch / On a way from Novorossiysk to Kerch she was heavily damaged and grounded. No information about losses.

17.11.1941 – Stepan Makarov (Степан Макаров – Admiral of Russian Imperial Navy, Scientist and Ocean investigator) / Icebreaker / 2156 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Capt.D.T.Chertkov / She was lost on a way from Novorossiysk to Tuapse. Reasons are unknown. 62 crew were lost (according to other sources complement in last voyage was 120)

19.11.1941 – Maykop (Майкоп) / Cargo ship / 398 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Taman / She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

28.11.1941 – Ingul (Ингул) / Cargo ship / 2324 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.K.Subbotin / Poti / Wrecked / 4 crew were lost.

11.12.1941 – Apsheron (Апшерон) / Tanker / 3781 BRT / Sovtanker / Capt.N.M.Filippov / Sevastopol / Mines / No information about losses.

19.12.1941 – Varlaam Avanesov (Варлаам Аванесов) / Tanker / 6557 BRT / Sovtanker / Capt.B.V.Ostashevsky / Aegean Sea / She was sunk by Italian submarine (according to other sources German submarine U-652) on a way from Black Sea to Far East. 1 crew were lost. Others returned to USSR via Turkey.

26.12.1941 – Fanagoria (Фанагория) / Tug boat / 295 to / Azov State Shipping Co. / Azov Sea / She was sunk by German aircrafts during landing troops. 100 soldiers and crew were lost.

26.12.1941 – Voroshilov (Ворошилов – Clement Voroshilov, one of Communist and Soviet Army Leaders, Marshal of USSR) / Dredger / Azov State Shipping Co. / Kerch / She was sunk by German aircrafts during landing troops of 51 Soviet Army in Kerch. 450 passengers were lost. 200 were rescued.

27.12.1941 – Penay (Пенай) / Cargo passenger ships / 548 BRT / Capt.G.P.Byutner / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Azov Sea / She was heavily damaged by German aircrats during landing troops and later was grounded. 110 soldiers and 3 crew were lost.

29.12.1941 – Eisk (Ейск) / Cargo passenger ships / 267 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co. / Capt.F.A.Varchenko / Azov Sea / She was sunk by German artillery during landing troops of 51 Soviet Army. 7 crew and several soldiers were lost.

31.12.1941 – Krasnogvardeets (Красногвардеец – a member of Red Guard, later a soldier of Red Army) / Cargo ship / 2719 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.D.V.Knab / Feodosia / She was sunk by German aircrafts during landing troops of 44 Soviet Army in Feodosia. No crew were lost.


1942


01.01.1942 – Tashkent (Ташкент - Capital of Uzbekistan, one of Soviet Republics) / Cargo ship / 5552 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.K.I.Moschinsky; Feodosia; She was sunk by German aircrafts. 17 crew were lost

04.01.1942 – Zyryanin (Зырянин) / Cargo ship / 2593 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.L.Tolbuzin; Feodosia; She was sunk by German aircrafts. 1 crew was lost.

05.01.1942 – Nogin (Ногин) / Cargo ship / 2109 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.L.Bezais; Feodosia; She was sunk by German aircrafts. No crew lost.

09.01.1942 – Chatyrdag (Чатырдаг) / Cargo ship / 901 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.Ya.Isachenko; Feodosia; She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

09.01.1942 – Spartakovets (Спартаковец – a member of Spartacus army, in Soviet history – a member of Spartak Sport Club) / Cargo ship / 1100 Tons / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.D.M.Malik; Feodosia; She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

14.01.1942 – Bataisk (Батайск) / Cargo ship / 3195 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.S.A.Bublik; Kerch; She was sunk by German aircrafts. 3 crew were lost

16.01.1942 – Jan Jores (Жан Жорес) / Cargo ship / 3972 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.G.N.Lebedev; Feodosia Gulf; Mines; About 40 crew and passengers were lost.

19-23.02.1942 – Kommunist (Коммунист – a member of Communist Party) / Cargo ship / 1941 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.L.G.Kabanenko; Black Sea; Wrecked. Master and 33 crew were lost.

01.03.1942 – Chapaev (Чапаев - One of Leaders of Red Army during Civil War) / Cargo ship / 3566 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.A.I.Chirkov; near Sevastopol; Mines. 88 crew and passengers were lost (according to other sources up to 120 crew and passengers were lost).

02.03.1942 – Fabricius (Фабрициус - One of Leaders of Red Army during Civil War) Cargo ship / 2434 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.M.I.Grogor; on a way from Novorossiysk to Anapa; She was heavy damaged by German aircrafts and grounded near Cape Utrish. 5 crew and several passengers were lost.

08.03.1942 – Sneg (Снег - Snow) / Icebreaker of Port of Kerch / 238 BRT / 900 HP / She was lost on a way from Taman to Kerch. Reasons are unknown. No information about losses.

21.03.1942 – Georgy Dimitrov (Георгий Димитров - Leader of Bulgarian and International Communist Organizations) / Cargo ship / 2482 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.S.Mironov; Sevastopol; She was sunk by German aircrafts. No crew were lost.

23.03.1942 – Nikolay Ostrovskiy (Николай Островский - One of Leaders of Young Communist organization and writer) / Cargo passenger ship / 2121 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Tuapse; She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

23.03.1942 – Vasiliy Chapaev (Василий Чапаев) / Cargo ship / 2690 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.I.Stepanov; close to Kherson Lighthouse; She was sunk by German aircrafts. 102 crew and passengers were lost.

24.03.1942 – Yalta (Ялта - City in Crimea) / Tanker / 611 BRT / Sovtanker / Capt.A.P.Esipenko; Tuapse; She was sunk by German aircraft. No information about losses.

02.04.1942 – Valerian Kuybyshev (Валериан Куйбышев - One of Leaders of Soviet Russia in 1920-th) / 4629 BRT / Sovtanker / Capt.V.G.Sobko; Taman; On a way from Novorossiysk to Kamysh-Burun with 3856 tons of kerosene was attacked and sunk by German aircrafts. 24 crew were lost. 32 crew were rescued.

12.04.1942 – Kommunar (Коммунар) / Sail motor ship / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.G.S.Scherbina; near Kamysh-Burun; Mines; Master and 1 crew were lost, 1 crew was badly wounded.

13.04.1942 – Partizan Zheleznyak (Партизан Железняк – one of Red Army heroes who was killed during Civil War) / Sail motor ship / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.G.Aleshin; Kerch Gulf; Mines; Master and 5 crew were lost.

14.04.1942 – Anton Chekhov (Антон Чехов - Russian Writer) / Cargo passenger ship / 2121 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.Z.V.Sobolev; Kerch strait; Mines; about 200 crew and passengers were lost.

17.04.1942 – Svanetia (Сванетия - a region in Georgia, one of Soviet Republic) / 4125 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.A.S.Belyaev; East part of Black Sea; She was sunk by German aircrafts on a way from Sevastopol to Novorossiyks. Complement in last voyage over 950 crew and passengers. 193 crew and passengers were rescued. Over 750 crew and passengers were lost.

20.04.1942 – Ledokol № 7 (Ледокол № 7 - Icebreaker # 7) / Icebreaker / 565 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.G.Popov; on a way from Novorossiysk to Kerch; Mines; 25 crew were lost. 11 crew were rescued.

21.04.1942 – Kalinin (Калинин - One of Soviet Union Leaders) / 4156 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.L.Bezais; Novorossiysk; She was sunk by German aircrafts.

04.05.1942 – Potemkin (Потёмкин - ex Knyaz Potemkin Tavtichesky. Re-named to Potemkin in memory of revolt of board Russian Black Sea Navy Ironclad with the same name Potemkin in 1905) / Cargo passenger ship / 836 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.T.M.Morozov; Kamysh-Burun; She was sunk by German aircrafts. 30 crew were lost. 25 crew were wounded.

06.05.1942 – Vostok (Восток - East) / Cargo ship / 2787 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.D.S.Sariev; Kerch strait; Mines; 10 crew were lost. 47 crew were rescued.

10.05.1942 – Chernomorets (Черноморец - Black Sea sailor) / Cargo ship / 1048 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.S.A.Perlov; Kerch strait. She was sunk by German aircrafts. About 500 crew and passengers were lost.

12.05.1942 – Krasny Moryak (Красный Моряк - Red (revolutionary) Sailor) / Cargo passenger ship / 348 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Port of Temryuk; She was sunk by German aircrafts. 4 crew were lost.

12.05.1942 – Krasny Flot (Красный Флот - Red (revolutionary) Fleet) / Cargo passenger ship / 712 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.L.S.Gorskov; Kerch strait. She was sunk by German aircrafts. No crew were lost.

12.05.1942 – Berezan (Березань) / Sail motor ship / Capt.Ya.I.Soroka; Kerch; Mines. She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

02.06.1942 – Mikhail Gromov (Михаил Громов) / Tanker / Sovtanker / Capt.M.V.Fomin; Near Yalta; She was sunk by German aircrafts on a way from Tuapse to Sevastopol. 6 crew were lost.


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination


10.06.1942 - Abkhazia (Абхазия – One of Soviet Autonomous Republics) / Cargo passenger ship / 4727 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.M.I.Beluha; Sevastopol; She was sunk by German aircrafts during discharging in Sevastopol. 8 crew were lost. (note: Adzharia type ships for Black Sea Crimea Lines)

13.06.1942 – Gruzia (Грузия – Georgia, One of the USSR Republics) / Cargo passenger ship / 4857 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.M.I.Fokin (Navy rank: Lieutenant Commander); Sevastopol; She was sunk by German aircrafts on the way from Novorossiyks to Sevastopol (in Sevastopol port area). In last voyage the ship had on board about 4000 military and cargo of ammunition. In results of explosion on board the ship immediately sank and most of passengers were lost. (see special report: Adzharia type ships for Black Sea Crimea Lines)

18.06.1942 – Belostok (Белосток – City in North-East part of Poland) / Cargo passenger ships / 2048 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.T.P.Rymkus (Navy rank: First Lieutenant); Near Balaklava; She was sunk by German torpedo boat S-102. Complement: 117 crew, 375 wounded, 43 passengers. 79 crew, 3 passengers and 75 wounded were rescued. 388 crew and passengers were lost.

02.07.1942 – Kuban (Кубань – area in South Russia) / Reefer / 3113 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.T.M.Morozov; Novorossiysk; She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination


02.07.1942 – Ukraina (Украина – Ukraine, One of the USSR Republics) / Cargo passenger ship / 4857 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.A.Polovko; Novorossiysk; She was sunk by German aircrafts in the Port of Novorossiysk. No information about losses is available. (see special report: Adzharia type ships for Black Sea Crimea Lines)

02.07.1942 – Elbrous (Эльборус) / Cargo ship / 970 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.I.M.Pavlenko; Port of Anapa; She was sunk by German aircrafts. 5 crew were lost.

02.07.1942 – Ledokol № 4 (Ледокол № 4 - Icebreaker # 4) / Icebreaker / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Port of Temryuk; No information about losses.

02.07.1942 – Proletariy (Пролетарий – a worker) / Hull of incomplete ship / 1123 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co.; Novorossiysk. No information about losses.

03.08.1942 – Voikov (Войков – one of early Soviet Leaders) / Tugboat / 173 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co.; Kerch. She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

10.08.1942 – Sevastopol (Севастополь – City and Navy Base in Crimea) / Cargo passenger ship / 1339 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Near Lazarevskaya; She was sunk by German torpedo boat S-102. 924 crew and passengers were lost. 130 crew and passengers were rescued.

12.08.1942 – Anapa (Анапа – City in Crimea) / Tugboat / 238 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co.; Kerch strait. She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

15.08.1942 – Chervona Ukraina (Червона Украина – Red (revolutionary) Ukraine) / 288 BRT / Azov State Shipping Co.; Sukhum. She was sunk by German aircrafts. 2 crew were lost.

15.08.1942 – Record (Рекорд – a record) / Tugboat / 100 To / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.N.K.Shved; Sukhum. She was sunk by German aircrafts. 5 crew were lost.

15.08.1942 – Shturman (Штурман – a navigator) / Cargo passenger ship / 196 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Temryuk. She was sunk by German aircrafts. No information about losses.

20.08.1942 - Nord (Норд) / Port Icebreaker / 450 HP / Azov State Shipping Co. / Port of Temryuk / Ship was destroyed by Soviet Army during retirement.


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

ss Tomp Photo was done in Savona on 19.01.1927. Photographer is unknown. Belongs to Andrey Nelogov (SN member)

more photos of ss Tomp

http://www.shipsnostalgia.com/gallery/showphoto.php/photo/202458/ppuser/37352

http://www.shipsnostalgia.com/gallery/showphoto.php/photo/202050/ppuser/37352

http://www.shipsnostalgia.com/gallery/showphoto.php/photo/202460/ppuser/37352

30.08.1942 - Jan Tomp (Ян Томп - Estonian communist) / Cargo ship / 1988 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.A.G.Alferiev; in Black Sea near Sochi; She was sunk by German torpedo boats S-102 and S-28. 5 crew were lost / 37 crew including 4 wounded were rescued

22.10.1942 – Azov (Азов – City in South Russia) / Cargo ship / 967 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.N.V.Veshnyakov; Tuapse. She was sunk by German aircrafts. 1 crew were lost

10.12.1942 – Nosak (Носак) / Cargo ship / 348 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.Zimin; Near Kobuleti. Wrecked. No information about losses.

End 1942 – Sovetskiy Krym (Советский Крым – Soviet Crimea) / Cargo ship / 968 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Near Gelendzhik. Damaged by German aircrafts and grounded. No information about losses.


1943


23.02.1943 – Alexander Ulyanov (Александр Ульянов – brother of Lenin) / Cargo ship / 2150 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.I.Stepanov; Port of Tuapse. She was sunk by German aircrafts when the ship was under discharging of ammunition. 52 crew and stevedores were lost.

27.02.1943 – Mius (Миус – River in South-east part of Ukraine and Rostov area in Russia) / Tugboat / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.P.M.Bondarenko; Near Novorossiysk. She was sunk by German torpedo boats. 10 crew were lost.

26.03.1943 – Chervony Kazak (Червонный Казак – Red (revolutionary) Cossack) / Schooner / 472 BRT / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.F.Belokonenko; Near Novorossiysk. She was sunk by German torpedo boats. No information about losses.

05.04.2943 – Simeiz (Симеиз – small town in Caucasus) / Tugboat / 171 BRT, 550 HP / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.V.A.Vechny; Near Novorossiysk; Mines. Master and 7 crew were lost.

16.04.1943 – Sakko and Vancetti (Сакко и Ванцетти – American workers) / Cargo ship / 450 To / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.A.F.Grigoriev; Near Gelendzhik; Mines; 8 crew were lost.

19.05.1943 – Pervansh (Перванш) / Tugboat / Azov State Shipping Co. / Sochi; She was sunk by German torpedo boats. No information about losses.

06.07.1943 – Ritsa (Рица – lake in Western part of Caucasus) / Sail motor ship / 120 To / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.M.O.Rolenko; Near Arkhipo-Osipovka. She was sunk by German torpedo boats. 6 crew were lost.

30.07.1943 – Emba (Эмба) / Tanker / Sovtanker / Capt.A.S.Zhuravlev; Sukhum. She was damaged by German aircrafts in January 1942 and later was grounded in Sukhum. On 30.07.1943 She was torpedoed by German submarine U-24 and total lost.

29.09.1943 – Dunaiskaya-2 (Дунайская-2 - Danubian) / Barge / 1150 To / Taganrog Gulf; Mines. 184 crew and passengers were lost. 28 passengers were wounded.

23.10.1943 – Tanais (Танаис – Ancient City in Rostov and Taganrog area) / Sail motor ship / Azov Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.G.I.Antonenko; Poti; She was sunk by German submarine U-23. Master and 10 crew were lost.

XX.10.1943 - "Berezina" (Березина) An the end of October was sunk by German aircraft at around 11pm upon leaving the port of Tuapse loaded with ammo, cannons and unknown. Of 38 crew only 11 were rescued. Ship was raised sometime in 1944 (by military, no civilians were allowed to be present) and returned to service.

1944

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Tanker Soyuz Gornorabochikh SSSR (later Sergo) a sister-ship of Vaijan Kuturie (ex Soyuz Metallistov SSSR) in Andre Marti Shipyard, Nikolaev, USSR. Post Card Construction of a lighter Sojus gornirabochikh SSSR issued by IZOGIZ, Moscow, 1931

16.01.1944 – Vaijan Kuturie (Поль) Вайян Кутюрье - Paul Vaillant-Couturier, 1892-1937, French writer and personality of International Communist movement) / Tanker / 7602 BRT / Sovtanker / Capt.M.A.Rigerman / Poti / She was torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-20 on a way from Batum to Tuapse / 3 crew were lost http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/3514.html

On 06.10.1945 she was lifted and since 1954 continued her job in Soviet Merchant Marine

29.05.1944 – Smely (Смелый – daring) / Tug boat / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.E.K.Schurov / Gulf of Sukhum / She was sunk by German submarine U-23 on a way from Ochamchiri to Sukhum / Master and 10 crew were lost http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/3253.html

19.06.1944 – Pestel (Пестель – Pavel Pestel, 1793-1826, One of Leaders of Russian anti-monarchy movement, who was executed after revolt of 1825) / Cargo passenger ship / 1850 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Co. / Capt.S.N.Kushnarenko / She was torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-20 near Port of Trebizond, Turkey / Master and 17 crew were lost / 48 crew were rescued http://www.uboat.net/allies/merchants/3267.html


1945


No losses


The above is complete list of Soviet Merchant Marine Losses in WW2 in Black Sea.

Note: Pestel (ex Velikiy Knyaz Aleksey)[edit]

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination


Pestel (ex Velikiy Knyaz Aleksey (Grand Duke Alexis) , since 1917 Pestel)

Owners: ROPIT

Launch Date: 9.5.90 / Date of completion: 8.90

Flag: RUS

Type: Passenger cargo ship

Tons: 1870 / 180 passengers

Builder: Hawthorn Leslie, Hebburn, GBR Yard No: 298

LPP: 89,70 / Beam: 11,30 / D: 4,80

Speed(kn): 12

Text from Sovtorgflot Annual Book 1927 (right): Description of Sovtorgflot Black Sea and Azov Sea Lines.

1. Crimea-Caucasus Express Line. From Odessa to Batum and vv. Twice per week. Departure from Odessa each Monday and Friday at 12:30. Departure from Batum each Tuesday and Friday. Ports of call: Odessa, Sevastopol, Yalta, Anapa, Novorossiysk, Tuapse, Sochi, Gagry, Sukhum, Poti, Batum. Transit time 3,5 days. Sailing Schedule is synchronized with Railways Schedule. Best ships Ilich, Lenin and Pestel work on this Line. Following service is available for passengers on board: Restaurant, separate Smoking, Music Saloons and Ladies Rooms, Radio Room, which is always in contact with all Soviet Radio Stations. Daily radio newspaper, radio concerts, lectures and others. First class cousine with reasonable prices. Book shop. Medical assistance.

Suppose that Crimean-Caucasus Lines were a part of Soviet Dream. Soviet people could not leave USSR to have a rest abroad. Bureaucracy, intellectuals and artists as well as best of workers spent their holidays in Crimea and Caucasus and did it with pleasure. Domestic shipping lines carried a lot of passengers. In dependence of social status passengers could use either luxurious cabin or a chair on deck. In any case the sea travel was a part of the dream. Most probably it was one of symbol, like night train between Moscow and Leningrad. Therefore, we can find several references about ss Pestel in fiction.

Ilya Ilf and Eugeny Petrov. 12 Chairs. THEATRE NEWS. The Moscow Columbus Theatre left yesterday, Sept. 3, for a tour of Yalta, having completed its stay in Tiflis. The theatre is planning to remain in the Crimea until the opening of the winter season in Moscow.'" "What did I tell you!" said Vorobyaninov. "What did you tell me!" snapped back Ostap. He was nevertheless embarrassed. The careless mistake was very unpleasant. Instead of ending the treasure hunt in Tiflis, they now had to move on to the Crimean peninsula. Ostap immediately set to work. Tickets were bought to Batumi and second-class-berths reserved on the ss Pestel leaving Batumi for Odessa at 11 p.m. Moscow time on September 7. On the night of September 10, as the Pestel turned out to sea and set sail for Yalta without calling at Anapa on account of the gale, Ippolit Matveyevich had a dream… http://lib.ru/ILFPETROV/ilf_petrov_12_chairs_engl.txt_Piece40.16

End of Note: Pestel (ex Velikiy Knyaz Aleksey)

Special Report 1: Adzharia type passenger ships for Black Sea Crimea-Caucasus Lines[edit]

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination
Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination


Abkhazia. Second ship of the Project.

Text (right): Wall Calendar. Page dated on 31.03.1930, Monday. Fisrt Soviet Crimea-Caucasus Ships. In the past Soviet Shipyard built timber carriers only. First timber carriers now are in service among other Sovtorgflot ships. Now Baltic Shipyard in Leningrad built passenger ships for Black Sea Crimea-Caucasus Line - Abkhazia and Adzharia. These are standard sea passenger ships. Their displacement 5.300 tons, length 112.50, width 15.5 meters and draft 5.54 meters. Service speed 23 km per hour subject to Engine power 3.000 HP. Each ship will have following passenger capacity: 50 - 1-st class + 194 - 2-nd class + 306 - 3-rd class and cargo capacity: 1000 tons. Main engine: Russian Diesel - two-cycle, reversible, 6 cylinders, 105 turns per minute. The ships have been already launched. New ships of the same type are under construction. A special competition will help to find a best project of passengers' cabins and accommodation. End


Mk.1 : Adzharia (1927-1941) / Abkhazia (1928-1942) / Armenia (1928-1941) / Ukraina (1928-1942)

Built by Baltic Shipyard, St.Petersburg

LOA 112,00 m / B 15,55 m / D 5,95 m / BRT 4727

Passengers (1+2+3 classes) 518; on deck for short sea routes + 462

Main engine: Diesel (Producer: Russkiy Dizel, Leningrad) 2 x 1472

Speed: 12,6 knots


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination


Mk.2 : Krym (Крым – Crimea, 1928-1973) / Gruzia (1928-1942)

Built by KRUPP Deutsche Werft, Kiel

LOA 110,00 m / B 15,55 m / D 5,74 m / BRT 4867

Passengers (1+2+3 classes) 518; on deck for short sea routes + 266

Main engine: Diesel 2 x 1472

Speed: 13,6 knots


The ships were built in USSR and Germany as per project of Central Bureau of Merchant Marine Shipbuilding, Leningrad (founded 1925) in accordance with Sovtorgflot program of regeneration of Soviet Merchant Fleet. The main idea was to combine big passenger capacity for intensive short sea traffic and small draft as result of limitations for this business area. Chief of the Project – Ya.A.Koperzhinsky, Hull – M.Denisov, I.Yakovlev, M.Lovyagin, Reefer – A.Defabr, Engine – P.Titov, Z.Aronshtam. Sovtorgflot planned to use five of these ships for short sea routes between Soviet Black Sea Ports of Crimea and Caucasus, including sea transportation of mail, cargoes (up to 1000 to) and reefer cargoes (up to 100 tons). One of the ships was used for cruise service between Black Sea and Baltic.

Four ships of first series were built by Baltic Shipyard in Leningrad in period since 1926 till 1931. Two ships were built in Germany by Deutsche Werft in Kiel (1928).

The mentioned project is considered as one of most successful for short sea routes in Soviet Ship Building. The main technical ideas of Abkhazia type ships were used for two ships built in Germany for service between Spain and Islands (Canaria and Balearias), and two ships built in USSR in mid 1930-th for Caspian Sea (Dagestan and Turkmenistan).

In 1941-1942 five of these ships were lost. The only ms Krym survived and worked the same area until mid of 1960-th.

source: http://www.sea.infoflot.ru and Mr Dmitry Klepikov report dated on 07.03.2008

End of Special Report: Adzharia type ships for Black Sea Crimea Lines

Note: Spanish Republicans Ships in Soviet Fleet During WW2[edit]

During spring and summer of 1937 several Spanish ships arrived in Soviet Union with republicans refugees on board. Two of them were included into Black Sea Soviet Navy and two into Black Sea State Shipping Company.

Essequibo (Эссекибо, Owners: Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., GBR, re-named NEVA at 1935), built 11.1914 by Workman Carl, Belfast / 8464 to / LOA 142,30 m / B 17,52 m / D 7,47 m / 2 steam engine x 2900 HP each / 14,7 knots / Complement: 347. She was converted into submarine floating base and repair shop. On 24.03.1942 she was badly damaged by German aircrafts in Tuapse, however she was repaired and was used until September 1946 as submarine base, then as a training ship. BU beginning 1963 in Japan.

With reference to below mentioned source the ship was delivered to USSR Government in 1935 and re-named NEVA http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz/ship/show/169265. If above is correct she is not a Spanish ship as it is said in article of Анатолий Одайник, Виталий Костриченко. СУДОХОДСТВО, 1995.

Other four ships are identified as built for Spanish Owners and used by them until sailing with refugees from Spain to USSR:

Juan Sebastian Elcano (Хуан Себастьян Элькано, Owners: Transatlantico and Cia, re-named VOLGA), built 04.1928 by Espanola, Sestao / 9965 to / LOA 140,10 m / B 17,00 m / D 6,56 m / 2 steam turbines x 2750 HP each / 14,0 knots. She was used as a submarine floating base. BU 1968 in Inkerman, USSR. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz/ship/show/172133

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Cabo San Agustin (DNEPR). Photo by courtesy of Klaus, SN member

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Cabo San Tome, sister-ship Cabo San Agustin (DNEPR)

Cabo San Agustin (Кабо Сан Агустин, Owners: Ybarra and Cia, re-named DNEPR) / hospital ship since 12.08.1941 (ex training ship) / built 9.1931 by Espanola, Sestao / LPP 147,10 m / B 19,30 m / 11868 to / Complement in last voyage: 203 / Master A.N.Morgunov, Navy rank: Commander / On 03.10.1941 Abkhaziya, DNEPR (Master A.N.Morgunov, Navy rank: Commander), Chekhov with destroyer SMYSHLENNY and mine-sweeper T-408 YAKOR sailed from Novorossiysk to Sevastopol. At 19:20 the convoy was attacked by German torpedo aircrafts from distance 1000 meters. One of six torpedoes hit DNEPR and she sank at 19:30in 44°38'N 37°15'Е (1200 meters). 40 crew and passengers were lost / 163 crew and passengers were rescued by mine-sweeper. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz/ship/show/256444

Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

Ciudad de Ibiza (Belostok). Photo by courtesy of Klaus, SN member

19.06.1942 - Ciudad de Ibiza (Сьюдад де Ибиза, Owners: Transmediterrania Compania, re-named Belostok) / Cargo-passenger ship / 03.1933 Union Levante, Valencia / LOA 75,90 m / B 11,40 m / D 4,70 m / 2 diesel engine x 1500 HP each / 12,50 knots / 2048 BRT / Black Sea State Shipping Company / Capt.T.P.Rymkus (Navy lieutenant) / 20nm S Cape Meganom, Sevastopol / On the way from Sevastopol at 01:48 she was torpedoed and sunk by German torpedo boat S-102 / Complement in last voyage: 127 crew, 375 wounded, 43 civilians / 388 crew and passengers were lost / 75 wounded, 3 passengers and 79 crew were rescued. http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz/ship/show/240777


Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination

ms Lvov, ex Ciudad de Tarragona (sister-ship ms Belostok, ex Ciudad de Ibiza) in Odessa


Ciudad de Tarragona (Сьюдад де Таррагона, Owners: Transmediterrania Compania, sister-ship Ciudad de Ibiza, re-named Lvov) / Black Sea State Shipping Company / She was used as submarine floating base until 17.12.1941, since 23.12.1941 was converted into and used as a hospital ship. Lvov was one of most successful Soviet ship within WW2 awarded with Red Banner medal (Total 35 voyages until 1944 / 12431 passengers). Source : Анатолий Одайник, Виталий Костриченко. СУДОХОДСТВО, 1995 г.