Revenge Class Battleship - HMS Royal Oak
The name Royal Oak
The name Royal Oak first appeared in the Royal navy in 1664 and there have been eight ships bearing the name, the origins of the name come from the name given to an oak tree that King Charles II of England hid in to avoid capture by the Roundheads in 1651.
- Was a 76 gun second rate ship of the line built in 1664 and destroyed by fire by the Dutch during the 1667 raid on the Medway.
- Was a 70 gun third rate ship of the line built in Plymouth in 1674, she ended her days as a prison ship from 1756 until her scrapping in 1764.
- Was another third rater but of 74 guns launched in 1769, she aslo became a prison ship in 1796 and was scrapped in 1815
- Was originally the Renown a 74 gun third rater built at Deptford in 1796-8 she became a harbour Hulk in 1814 and was renamed Royal Oak.
- Was another 74 gun third rater launched in 1809 and scrapped in 1850.
- Was an iron clad frigate of the Prince Consort class - Royal Oak, Prince Consort, Ocean, and Caledonia, they started out life as Bulwark class wooden battleships but were altered to iron clads whilst under construction, 252 feet long and displacing 6,366 tons she mounted thirty-six 68 pounder smoothbore guns she was driven by a single hoistable propeller , built by Chatham Dockyard in 1860-3 she was scrapped in 1885.
- Was a Royal Sovereign class pre-Dreadnought class battleship, 411 feet long and displacing 15,580 tons she was armed with four 13.5" and ten 6" guns, she was built By Lairds of Birkenhead in 1892-6 and scrapped in january 1914.
- Was the Revenge class battleship the subject of this article and the last ship to have born the name to date.
This is an early and freely available image of the Royak oak and may have been taken on her initial trials, B turret is trained round to port - possibly as far as the training stops, this is just a drill as the crew on deck would not be there if she was going to fire the guns. The port 6" secondary battery is also trained out showing just how low these guns were in the ship, the single focsle deck 6" can also be seen trained out. The hull is clean of torpedo bulges so it definitely before September 1922 as she went into refit on that date to have the bulges fitted
In 1913 a programme was started for the construction of a class of five battleships which for some reason are frequently referred to as the Royal Sovereign class, however the correct name for them was the Revenge class as that is how they were referred to in the Admiralty at their time of building. There was an original plan to built eight of the class but in 1914 all future capital ship building was cancelled , Jackie Fisher then the new First Sea Lord managed to get two of the classes construction suspended, these were the Renown and Repulse – the materials for these ships were later to become the battle-cruisers of that name, the eight ship Resistance was cancelled altogether. They followed the Queen Elizabeth class and if ever a design can be called a retrograde step then this is that design, once again costs and the need to keep these down reared it’s unwanted head, the Revenge class were smaller and cheaper than the QE’s and they were to be coal fired thankfully during construction the design was altered and they reverted back to oil firing, original bunker capacity had been planned at 3,000 tons of coal and 1,500 tons of oil, this was changed to 3,400 tons of oil and 150 tons of coal but still gave a rather short range of action. Another strange feature was the single rudder, all other battleships had had twin rudders whilst the revenge class were fitted with a single main rudder on a centre-line skeg aft with a smaller auxiliary rudder immediately forwards of it. The secondary rudder was for use if the main rudder was damaged and it was the only one able to be operated by hand. in use the rudder was proved as ineffective and was later removed. From ahead the class looked similar to the preceding QE class but the secondary battery 6” guns in their casemates were set much further aft, although almost amidships these guns were still much to low in the ship and as such suffered badly in any seaway, and as they could not be closed watertight posed a threat to the ship by allowing flooding of the ship should she be damaged, from beam on the single upright funnel made them easily distinguishable. One good feature of the design was the better disposition of the armoured protection, the middle deck was no longer the armoured deck, instead this was moved up one level to the main deck. They were also steady sea boats which made them good gun platforms however the later fitting of anti torpedo bulges somewhat reduced this by making them prone to roll more.
Royal Oak was built at Devonport Dockyard being laid down on the 15th January 1914 and launched 17th November 1914. She commissioned into the 4th Battle Squadron (4BS) of the Grand Fleet on the 1st May 1916.
As built :- L 624'03" B 88'06" Draft 28'06" inc to 30'06" Disp 28,000 tons standard and 31,000 tons full load
The machinery of the Revenge class was a virtual repeat of that first fitted in the Queen Elizabeth class except that as a cost saving measure the designed power was considerably less. The installation consisted of Parsons reaction type direct drive steam turbines driving quadruple three bladed propellers each 9.5 feet in diameter, and developing 36,000 SHP for 21 knots, overload power being 40,000 SHP at 320 RPM giving 23 knots. There were three engine rooms, the two wing spaces contained the HP turbines which drove the outboard shafts with a small cruising turbine driving through a set of reduction gears , the two low pressure turbines were sited in the centre engine room driving the inboard shafts.
Steam was provided by 18 large tube Yarrow oil fired boilers at 235 psi, bunker capacity was 3,400 tons of oil and 160 tons of coal which gave a range of 7,500 n. miles at 12.5 knots and 2,400 n. miles at 21 knots.
Eight 15” C42 Mk1 guns in four twin Mk1 turrets, these guns fired an AP shell weighing 1,920 lbs out to approximately 23,500 yards at 20 degrees elevation and using 428 lbs of MD45 propellant in four quarter charges contained in 'Shallon’ silk bags. The 15 inch gun was without a doubt the finest gun ever produced by the UK, it was first test fired for the Queen Elizabeth class in 1912 and it’s last firing was on the Vanguard in 1954, ( Vanguard was fitted with the 15” turrets and guns originally intended for the 1916 Glorious class battlecruisers – it was often said that she was the best battleship but was fitted with her Great Aunts teeth!). . The 15” gun was very powerful and had a very good wear rate which would allow it to fire 330 to 340 rounds with a full charge before needing relining, they were constructed of a steel liner inside a steel inner or A tube, over this to reinforce the gun 185 miles of thin flat wire was wound at a set tension , over the wire windings a steel jacket was shrunk on, the entire gun was 54 feet long and weighed about a hundred tons and the entire two gun turret a total of 770 tons.
As built the class were fitted with fourteen 6” C45 Mk12 guns all on single Mk9 pedestal mountings, all in casemates with six either side of the upper-deck and one either side of the foc’sle deck above the Number two gun in the lower casemates. This was the same secondary weapon as fitted to the Queen Elizabeth class and a large number of cruisers as their main battery, they suffered from flooding at sea but to a slightly lesser degree that those of the Queen Elizabeth class and in a even a moderate sea were difficult if not impossible to use. They had a very similar construction to that of the main battery with a liner inside an A tube, then wire wound with a shrunk on jacket , the guns were just over 23 feet long and weighed about 7 tons, maximum elevation was 15 degrees giving a range of about 14,000 yards. They fired a 100 lb shell using a charge of 27lbs of cordite contained in a single silk shallon bag. Rate of fire would be about 6 rounds per minute and 130 rounds per gun were carried, this gun could also fire star-shell with just 100 rounds carried on the ship. Designed to combat the larger torpedo boats then appearing the gun was not a success, at the same time aircraft were appearing and the low elevation of these guns was useless for AA fire. One improvement on this class was that from the outset director firing was fitted for the 6” batteries however the directors themselves were not fitted until 1917-18.
AA weapons : as new two 12 pounder (3”) C45 Mk1 guns were fitted, one either side of the boat deck, this was the first purpose built British AA weapon which weighed 20 cwt ( one ton) and was just over 10 feet long, ammunition was of the fixed type with the shell and charge/ cartridge loaded as one unit the original round weighed 12.5 lbs but rose later to 17.5 lbs and used a 2.1 lb charge of cordite. Normal ceiling was 23-24,000 yards and range when used as a surface gun was just under 11,000 yards.
The class were also fitted with four 3 pounder signalling guns
In 1924 the two 12 pounder AA guns were replaced with two 4" HA AA guns, in 1927 a further two 4" guns were added and the two focsle deck 6" removed. In 1934 the four single 4" were replaced with four twin 4" c40 Mk16 HA AA guns these had a range 19,700 yards and had an AA ceiling of 39.000 feet, and on a platform either side of the funnel was fitted an eight barrelled 2 pounder pompom, also fitted were two quadruple .5 inch Mg's - one either side of the conning tower. She received no further wepons before her loss.
This freely vailable image shows Royal Oak post her 1934 rebuild, clearly seen are S1 the forward starboard twin 4" mount and above that abreast the funnel the Starboard eight-barrel 2 pounder pompom and platform. The sets of chains running down the bow to the fore-foot are the paravane sweeping gear for mines, torpedo shaped devices which when towed by this gear veered out from the ships side, any mine cable encountred would be dragged clear of the ship, down to the paravane and cut for the mine to be destroyed on the surface by small arms fire which wither sank it or exploded it. Once again the upper outline of the torpedo bulges shows up very well
The original outfit was four 21" underwater torpedo tubes, one pair forward of A gun barbette and one pair aft of Y gun. In 1933 the after pair were removed and in 1934 the forward pair were removed and two fixed tubes fitted above deck, on either side.
The Revenge class were armoured very much like the Queen Elizabeth class, reputedly with better distribution but by the fact that the class as a whole was kept out of harms way during WW2 showed they were very much under protected. The main belt, 13” thick, ran from just forward of A barbette to just aft of Y barbette and was just under 13 feet deep and projected 5 feet below the load waterline, forward and aft of the two end barbettes the armour tapered to 6” and finally 4” forwards , above this was a lighter belt 6” thick protecting the 6” gun batteries and running from A to Y barbette. The ends of the armoured belt were closed off with armoured bulkheads 6” thick forwards and 4” inches aft forming the armoured citadel. Torpedo protection was afforded by a a bulkhead covering the magazines and machinery spaces, 1.5” thick over the magazines and 1” elsewhere, this was considered rather poor and the small size and narrow beam of this class made improving this very difficult. Deck armouring was 1” on the foc’sle deck, the next deck the upper or battery deck was 1.5”, the armoured deck below this was just 2” thick, although this was one deck higher than the QE class it was still woefully inadequate against modern long range gunnery with steeply falling shells, the steering gear was in an armoured box of 3 or 4” plate. The barbette armour was 10” when on the beam and outside of other armour this tapered to 4” on the fore and aft line and also reduced to 4” when behind the side armour belts. The Turrets had 13” faces, 11” sides and a 4.5” roof whilst the control tower had 11” sides a 3” roof and a 4” hood, the armoured communications tube down into the ship from the control tower was 6” thick when outside of other armour and 4” inside. Royal Oak was lost on the 13th October 1939, well before she or her sisters had their armour scheme improved slightly.
On completion Royal oak commissioned into the 3rd Division of the 4th Battle Squadron ( 3D4BS) of the Grand Fleet on the 1st May 1916 based at Scapa Flow. After just 30 days of training and manoeuvres she had her first taste of battle at Jutland on the 31st May and 01st June 1916. The line up of 3D4Bs at Jutland was Iron Duke, Captain F.W. Dreyer, under Jellicoe was lead ship followed by Royal Oak - Capt. C. MacLachlan , Superb - flag Rear Admiral Duff – Rear Admiral of the 4BS - Capt. E Hyde-Parker and Canada - Capt. WCM Nicholson.
Royal Oaks first action came at 1833 when she straddled by heavy shells from the battleships of the German High seas fleet, the smoke of the earlier battle between the British and German battle-cruisers and the British armoured Cruisers and the prevailing mist gave the German fleet an advantage as they could see the British battle-fleet were as the British could not see their opponents as yet. At 1829 the Royal Oak sighted the Weisbaden a German light cruiser that had been disabled earlier by the British battle-cruiser Invincible, as the hapless cruiser appeared in front of the British fleet each ship in turn opened fire on her, Royal Oak opened with her 15” and later her 6” batteries, Royal Oak claimed one hit with a 15” shell. At 1909 Royal Oak opened fire, the first ship to do so, on what was thought to be a German torpedo attack by her destroyers and was actually a brave rescue attempt for the crew of the Weisbaden, she used her 6” batteries only at this time at arrange of 8,000 yards, later this rescue mission turned into a torpedo attack by the 6th and 9th German destroyer flotillas. At 1915 Royal Oak sighted three German battle-cruisers and opened fire on the Derfflinger, however her opening range of 14,000 yards was well over, at 1920 the Derfflinger disappeared into the mist and fire was shifted to the next target the Seydlitz with two hits being obtained at about 1920, due to the poor visibility she expended only six salvoes, the hits on Seydlitz were both on the after the funnel, one passing straight through at the level of the search-light platform the other at boat deck height, neither exploded. When the Seydlitz turned away fire was shifted to a the battleship Konig with a hit being obtained at 1927, this hit was on the right gun of the port wing turret some 12 feet out from the turret face, the gun was thrown about and flattened by the hit, the cradle and cradle carrier were badly distorted with the gun being put completely out of action. Although the left gun was undamaged the director gear was destroyed and the turret could no longer fire under director control with the other turrets. Splinters from this hit which was about 8 feet above the deck hit the barrel of the No.5 port 5.9” gun putting this out of action and also holed the port casemate gun range-finder and pierced the 1.4” upper-deck entering the 5.9” gun casemates. Heavy smoke laid by the attacking German destroyers and the now retreating German High Seas Fleet effectively ended the battyle for the Royal Oak and although the Germans were pursued through the night the High Seas Fleet managed to avoid any further major contact with the Grand Fleet. During the battle Royal Oak fired a total of 38 rounds of 15” shell, the type of shell fired is not known, she also fired 84 rounds of 6” shell. The remainder of thr war was spent in the Grand Fleet on manoeuvres and sweeps of the North sea with no further major actions. Following the armistice Royal Oak along with most of the Grand Fleet sailed on the 21st November 1918 to accept the German High Seas Fleet into interment first on the Firth of Forth then after disbarment checks and formalities at Scapa Flow, along with an American contingent this was the largest gathering of capital ships ever, whilst in interment at Scapa Flow the German Fleet scuttled itself on the morning of 21 June 1919. In 1919 Royal Oak was part of the 1BS of the Atlantic fleet until September 1922, during this time she spent March to July 1920 in Turkish waters, Following this deployment she decommissioned for a major refit at Portsmouth, during this refit she was fitted with anti-torpedo bulges which increased her beam to 102’01”, the bulges were each seven feet wide and had three separate compartments , these were filled with timber, hollow steel tubes and fuel oil intended to absorb the gas bubble from a torpedo explosion before it could damage the main hull, their weight was about 1,000 tons each and extended from the forward to aft torpedo rooms and from the turn of the bilge to just below the 6” casemates, although they improved the safety against torpedo attack they also increased the stability of the ship, this was a bad thing, the Revenge class deliberately were designed with reduced stability thus making them slow to roll and so steady gun platforms, an increase in stability made them roll more and faster – not a desirable achievement. The draft of the ship was now 31’06” with a corresponding displacement of 33,240 tons The bridge structure was partially rebuilt during this refit and the two 3” HA AA guns were replaced with two 4” Mk4 HA AA guns. In June 1924 she re-commissioned into the Mediterranean fleet were she remained until 1927 when she returned home for to Plymouth to refit, this time the fighting top was rebuilt and two more Mk4 4” guns added, to reduce the weight of the ship and not to increase the crew needed to man the armament the two Foc’sle deck 6” guns were landed and the casemates plated over. She re-commissioned in June 1927 back into the Mediterranean fleet where she remained until May 1934 when she returned to Plymouth again for a further major refit, decommissioning in June 1934. During this period she received the largest refit of her career, the four single 4” AA guns were replaced with four twin Mk16 4” guns, a platform was built either side of the funnel and an eight- barreled 2 pounder Pompom fitted, to further augment the light AA outfit two quadruple Vickers 0.5” machine guns were fitted, one either side of the control tower – although time was to tell that these weapons were useless, there not firing a heavy enough shell to stop an aircraft and the range of 1,500 yards was also insufficient. The earlier single Mk1 High Angle Control Station (HIACS) was replaced with two units one as original on the foremast and the second on the main-mast, the main mast was also reconstructed into a tripod to support the extra weight. The bridge structure was again rebuilt and the under-water torpedo tubes replaced with two pairs of fixed above water tubes on the upper-deck forwards, her armour plating was upgraded with an additional 2 inches of non-cemented armour plate over the magazines making the decks here 5” thick and 3.5 inches over the engine and boiler spaces. The experimental aircraft flying off platforms on A and X turret were replaced with a single catapult on X turret, this was the final refit she received. On completion of the refit in August 1936 she commissioned into the Home Fleet based on Scapa Flow, July 1939 saw her briefly back in the Mediterranean fleet but August saw her back in British waters due to threat of war with Germany. Her early duties were as part of the naval forces searching for German merchant ships returning to Germany.
An Undated image of Royal Oak - she is fitted with the twin 4" AA guns so it is post 1934, the ships astern are in order : Revenge, Royal Sovereign and Ramillies, the photograph was taken from the Resolution, this is a freely available image of Royal Oak.
On the 08th October 1939 U47 under the command of Kapitanleutnant Gunther Prien departed from Kiel with the mission to attack the British fleet in Scapa Flow, U47 was a type VIIB dimensions L 218’02” B 20’04” draft 15’06” and displacing 741 tons on the surface and 843 tons submerged, she was powered by two diesel engines of 1,400 bhp and giving a speed of 17.1 knots on the surface whilst two electric motors of 375 bhp gave her a maximum submerged speed of 8.8 knots. She was armed with four 21” torpedo tubes forwards and a single tube aft and also carried an 88mm deck gun and a 20mm AA gun, she could dive to 350 feet and carried a crew of 44 men. On the evening of the 12th October Prien and U47 commenced their inward passage into Scapa Flow via Holm Sound, submerging when traffic approached and surfacing again when all was quiet, the final entry was to be through Kirk Sound, the northern most of the three eastern entrances to the Flow, which was supposedly blocked by three block ships sunk to prevent passage, these were the old ships Thames, Soriano and Minich, however there was a small gap just large enough between the Thames and Soriano for Prien to squeeze through, the night was clear with the Northern Lights providing illumination, these were so bright Prien considered aborting the mission but pressed on, whilst passing through the gap a taxi on shore pulled up to turn round, his headlights illuminating the submarine, although Prien and his men could see army vehicles and sentries amazingly no-one saw the U47 and at 0055 she was through into Scapa Flow, bitter disappointment set in , there was no sign of the British fleet. The lack of targets was the fault of the Kriegsmarine, a few days earlier the German Light battleship Gneisenau and the cruiser Koln had sailed with nine destroyers with the aim of luring the Home Fleet out of Scapa Flow so that the bombers of the Luftwaffe could sink them, the first part of the plan worked but the Luftwaffe failed with their side of the plane. Apart from a few supply tankers only one major Warship remained in the anchorage, the elderly battleship Royal Oak, too slow to keep up with the fleet she had been left as guard and AA defense ship for the Flow and even she was set to sail in the morning. Another vessel was taken to be the repulse but was in fact the seaplane carrier Pegasus. At 0058 Prien fired three GE7 type torpedoes at the sleeping battleship, each torpedo weighed 1.5 tons and the range was 3,000 yards, a few minutes later the 1,219 men on board the Royal Oak were woeken by a lod bang from forwards and the sound of the starboard anchor chain running out. Confusion reigned as to what happened with most men putting it down to an explosion in the paint shop forwards, amazing two torpedoes ahd missed the ship and the third had hit right in the bows of the ship, with little damage most of the Oaks men returned to their hammocks. Beneath the flow Prien,s men were reloading the empty tubes as fast as possible for another strike, at 0113 they had completed their task and the U47 fired three more torpedoes. At 0116 Priens aim was better or more likely the torpedoes ran better and all three slammed into their target, all three 800 lb TNT warheads exploded causing crippling damage to the old ship, the torpedo bulges failed to protect the ship and huge holes were blown in the starboard side of the ship in way of the forward magazines, the forward boiler room and the starboard wing engine room. If this was,nt enough the hit in the magazines ignited the cordite into a searing white flame which roared through the ship through the very passageways her men were using to escape the quickly listing ship. To Prien watching from the now the U47 although all power had failed very quickly on the mortally injured ship she could be clearly seen in the light of the white flames of the burning cordite blazing out of the ships vents and ports like the flame of a huge blow lamp. Very quickly the ship reached an angle of 45 degrees when the huge guns turrets broke free and swung round, the barrels splashing into the water, their weight adding to the capsizing motion, on board it was a living hell. Apart from the flames in which men report others lighting up like matches, water-tight doors weighing tons broke free of the fastenings and crashed shut trapping yet more men, and as the open ports and vent were submerged more water poured in, although some men made an escape through those open ports. After hanging at 90 degrees for a short while Royal oak rolled slowly over and sank, crushing her superstructure and funnel into the mud on the bed of Scapa Flow. Prien’s words on these terrible few minutes were
I felt as never before my kinship with these men below who did their duty silently and blindly, who could see neither the day nor the target and who died in the dark if it had to be.
Of Royal Oaks crew of 1219 men just 386 survived, 833 men perished, this figure would have been much higher but for the valiant efforts of one small ship, the tender ‘Daisy 2’ a converted drifter around a hundred feet long and 15 feet in the beam and her small crew managed to rescue the 386 men in the early hours of that icy Sunday morning. Prien managed to escape back the way he had come in Germany arriving on the morning of the 15th and a hero’s welcome, Prien and the U47 were met at the dock by Donitz and Gross admiral Raeder and all the men were awarded the iron Cross there and then with Prien being awarded the Iron Cross First Class, that afternoon the entire crew were flown to Berlin were Hitler himself made the awards.
Back at Scapa Flow all the survivors were interviewed and asked what they thought had caused the explosions and sinking, there were rumours of sabotage and investigations centre on a number of oil drums loaded onto the Oak the day before the sinking. However on the 14th October a young diver named Sandy Watson made the first inspection of the wreck and found three massive holes, the second dive revealed the true cause of her sinking, sandy found the contra-rotating propellers and gearbox of a German torpedo in the wreck, he also found a number of men with the heads and shoulders jammed in the portholes of the wreck, others were recovered from round the wreck, all being buried in the Naval Cemetery at Lyness on the nearby Island of Hoy The wreck lay largely undisturbed except for the Royal Navy removing the propellers in 1950 and a small amount of looting by amateur divers in the 1970’s one diver removed the ships name in large brass letters but later handed them over and they were mounted on a mahogany board by the navy and presented to the museum at Lyness in 1995 her bell was also found by navy divers in the 1970’s and presented to the Museum. Her wreck lies in 30 metres of water and is undisturbed apart from the annual ceremony in which Royal Navy divers attach a new white ensign to her on the anniversary of her sinking. On the 61st Anniversary of the Oaks sinking a special service was granted permission to take place, the ashes of Dorothy Golding , wife of Bandsman Arthur Golding who died with the ship, were placed in the wreck re-uniting her with her husband – Dorothy had never remarried, she died aged 94 on the 11th November 1999. Today the wreck is marked by a green buoy bearing her name and a small trickle of oil still stains the clean waters of the flow, a catching tent has been rigged over the wreck but this does not always work and efforts are being made to remove the oil by drilling into the wreck to pump it out. The wreck of the Oak is one of the four relics of the five revenge class ships, two more are the gun barrels mounted outside of the Imperial war Museum, one each from the Ramillies and Resolution, another relic is at the Jodrell Bank radio telescope, part of one of Revenges gun turrets rack and pinion drives now operate the telescope.
This is the Contra-rotating Propeller from one of the torpedoes fired by the German Type VII Submarine U-47 (commanded by Gunther Prien ) fired at the Royal Navy Battleship HMS Royal Oak at the outset of WW2 in Scapa Flow. as found by diver David Gorn Photo courtesy of SN Moderator Davie Tait
Royal Oaks brass name plate - one of a pair mounted over the quarter-deck, these were stolen from the wreck by an amateur diver in the 1970's returned some twenty years later they were mounted on this board by the navy and presented to the museum at Lyness Photo courtesy of SN member Craig1128
This image Provided by Davie Tait shows the Royal Oaks bell found by navy divers and placed in St Magnus Cathedral Kirkwall
The buoy marking Royal Oak's resting place with tributes to the 833 men who remain on service with her Photo courtesy of SN member Craig1128
For up to date information on Royal Oak today please see her excellent website : http://www.hmsroyaloak.co.uk/
and the latest up date : www.hmsroyaloak.co.uk/68th.html
- Jutland – John Campbell,
- Jutland - Geoffrey Bennett,
- Conway’s 1906-21 and 1922-46
- Wikipedia for the list of Previous Royal Oak's
- Royal Oaks website :http://www.hmsroyaloak.co.uk/
Article completed 12th January 2008 - Steve Woodward
Revenge Class Battleships
|Revenge Class Battleships|
|Revenge Class Battleship - HMS Ramillies||Revenge Class Battleship - HMS Resolution||Revenge Class Battleship - HMS Revenge||Revenge Class Battleship - HMS Royal Oak||Revenge Class Battleship - HMS Royal Sovereign|