Problems with ships on Charter to BP - Ships Nostalgia
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Problems with ships on Charter to BP

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  #1  
Old 26th November 2012, 01:58
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Problems with ships on Charter to BP

During my time with BP I was involved with many inspections on vessels on BP charter or seeking a charter with BP or having suffered mishaps while on charter. A few were unusual/interesting and their mishaps will be detailed here.
Number one was a tanker owned/managed by Denholm's of Glasgow. This event occurred in 1984 and I do not wish to give the ships full name.
The ship was under Charter to BP US and loaded a full cargo at Sullom Voe for discharge at the BP refinery in Philadelphia.
The Burmah ...... was a tanker of approx. 60,000 gross tons and was powered by a 7 cylinder B&W engine developing approx. 24,000BHP. During the voyage the Jacket Water Coolers or Lube Oil Coolers became fouled on the sea water side and it became necessary to stop the main engine to clean the main sea water strainer. This resulted in a fully flooded engine room which obviously immobilized the ship . Eventually a salvage tug was engaged and the ship towed into a repair berth at Halifax, Nova Scotia arriving in July 1984.
BP US in Ohio sent myself and a Marine colleague, Capt. Tim Plummer to meet the vessel on arrival at Halifax to report on the situation with their main concern being length of time before they could expect the cargo to be delivered!! This event occurred almost thirty years ago and I am really digging deep into my grey cells for names etc. - so please forgive me for the mistakes I have made and will probably continue to make. Tim and I were joined by a Consultant Engineer/Surveyor , Ron Vince from Edon Liddiard of London. We were in Halifax approx. two days prior to the ships arrival.
On arrival of the ship at the repair berth the three of us went aboard and were greeted by the usual "frosty" reception usual in these situations. We proceeded to the Captain's Cabin to meet with the Captain, Owners Reps and the forever present lawyers. Ron and myself then proceeded to the Engine Control Room to meet with the Engineers and assess the situation. The water level was up to the engine cylinder covers, auxiliary boiler and all generators except the small emergency unit . The Engine Control Room was still dry. We were advised by the Engineers the reason for the flooding was sea water flooding in when the sea water strainer cover for the auxiliary sea water system was removed to clean the strainer . It was obvious that the Engineers were very upset and we assume had been told by the Owners Reps and Lawyers to say nothing further. It was during this short period in the Control Room that I noticed a small but "prominent" notice on the Control Room Board stating "Note - the Auxiliary System Sea valve is Left Handed."
Ron and myself and the Owners Reps next met with reps from the local repair firm and agreed that they should proceed with plugging externally the offending sea valve and set up pumps to de-water the engine room. It was also determined that they should remove for full overhaul all electric motors as they became accessible. We then departed.
De-Watering of the Engine Room progressed slowly. Everywhere and everything was covered with a combined film of fuel oil and lube oil. After approx. 60 hours we were informed that the level of water was approaching the bottom plate level. Ron and myself wishing to be present when the strainer was uncovered arrived on the ship at 0200 suitably dressed in waterproof coveralls and proceeded to the lower engine room level. No one else was present! Almost in sync with our arrival at the strainer location the water level dropped below the top of the strainer.
This was what we observed.
1. Strainer Cover completely off and hanging from a chain-fall.
2. All nuts from strainer cover studs removed.
3. Main Sea Valve was indeed a "left hand valve" - (turn anti-clockwise to shut) - was in the fully open position.
Obviously the reason for the engine room flooding was that the Engineers performing the strainer cleaning had assumed the valve was fully shut.
It is always easy to second guess during these examinations but we had to make an official report.
a) The Strainer was fitted with a test cock - was it used?
b) Why were all the nuts removed from the strainer cover retaining studs? Normal practice is to slacken back nuts and "crack" open strainer cover initially.
c) Why were they not aware that it was a "left hand valve."
We later discovered that the ship had dry-docked recently in Europe for a scheduled docking and the subject valve was found to beyond repair. It was replaced with a "left hand valve" which was to be replaced with the correct type valve as soon as possible.
Next problem was the main interest to BP US, namely discharging the cargo. However they gave us one major proviso - the cargo had to be discharged with tanks inerted as per BP Regulations! Capt. Tim Plummer spent several days searching the area for a Portable IG Generator of adequate size - but proved successful and the unit was transported to Halifax.
Next problem was cargo pumps as the ships own pumps were turbine driven. However for a reason that I guess will forever be unknown to myself we discovered she was also fitted with a small cargo pump powered by a diesel engine . The prime mover for this pump was de-watered and serviced and proved operational.
At this time I was dispatched to another investigation in Alaska and can only state that the cargo was eventually discharged in Halifax either into a shore pipeline or barges or smaller tankers??
In conclusion my thoughts have always returned to two items I had never seen on board tankers before - "a left handed valve" and a "diesel driven cargo pump."
I would be very interested in any Denholm staff that are familiar with this incident and who could post more information on this forum.
I have tried to be as brief as possible.
Many Thanks - Roger
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  #2  
Old 26th November 2012, 15:54
chadburn chadburn is offline  
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Roger, I have no knowledge of the incident you described, however, I have experienced the L.H. valve problem during my early day's. In my case it was on a VTE main stop, after working on a VTE's with the "normal" valve the L.H. took a bit of getting use to especially when under pressure during manoeuvre's and I was subject to a couple of double ring's on the Chadburns. There is however a "proceedure" as you have indicated before removing all of the nut's off a strainer cover to ensure that it is not under pressure.
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Old 26th November 2012, 22:15
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What a nightmare.... sometimes the engineering staff cant cope with unusual circumstances... tired, 4 on 8 off can effect performance...
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Old 27th November 2012, 13:44
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As a 'deckie' I would have thought it obvious to have a notice on the valve wheel itself!

On deck we always used to lash valves that had to be kept shut for parcel separation, as a vital aide memoire.
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Old 27th November 2012, 14:42
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What a nightmare.... sometimes the engineering staff cant cope with unusual circumstances... tired, 4 on 8 off can effect performance...
That certainly seem's to have been possibly the case on HMS Endurance which came to grief a couple of year's ago when an "unusual" v/v (compared to the other v/v,s in the Engineroom according to a Report) was fitted on refit and caught them out flooding the Engineroom disabling her.
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Old 27th November 2012, 14:47
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Originally Posted by ChiefCharles View Post
During my time with BP I was involved with many inspections on vessels on BP charter or seeking a charter with BP or having suffered mishaps while on charter. A few were unusual/interesting and their mishaps will be detailed here.
Number one was a tanker owned/managed by Denholm's of Glasgow. This event occurred in 1984 and I do not wish to give the ships full name.
The ship was under Charter to BP US and loaded a full cargo at Sullom Voe for discharge at the BP refinery in Philadelphia.
The Burmah ...... was a tanker of approx. 60,000 gross tons and was powered by a 7 cylinder B&W engine developing approx. 24,000BHP. During the voyage the Jacket Water Coolers or Lube Oil Coolers became fouled on the sea water side and it became necessary to stop the main engine to clean the main sea water strainer. This resulted in a fully flooded engine room which obviously immobilized the ship . Eventually a salvage tug was engaged and the ship towed into a repair berth at Halifax, Nova Scotia arriving in July 1984.
BP US in Ohio sent myself and a Marine colleague, Capt. Tim Plummer to meet the vessel on arrival at Halifax to report on the situation with their main concern being length of time before they could expect the cargo to be delivered!! This event occurred almost thirty years ago and I am really digging deep into my grey cells for names etc. - so please forgive me for the mistakes I have made and will probably continue to make. Tim and I were joined by a Consultant Engineer/Surveyor , Ron Vince from Edon Liddiard of London. We were in Halifax approx. two days prior to the ships arrival.
On arrival of the ship at the repair berth the three of us went aboard and were greeted by the usual "frosty" reception usual in these situations. We proceeded to the Captain's Cabin to meet with the Captain, Owners Reps and the forever present lawyers. Ron and myself then proceeded to the Engine Control Room to meet with the Engineers and assess the situation. The water level was up to the engine cylinder covers, auxiliary boiler and all generators except the small emergency unit . The Engine Control Room was still dry. We were advised by the Engineers the reason for the flooding was sea water flooding in when the sea water strainer cover for the auxiliary sea water system was removed to clean the strainer . It was obvious that the Engineers were very upset and we assume had been told by the Owners Reps and Lawyers to say nothing further. It was during this short period in the Control Room that I noticed a small but "prominent" notice on the Control Room Board stating "Note - the Auxiliary System Sea valve is Left Handed."
Ron and myself and the Owners Reps next met with reps from the local repair firm and agreed that they should proceed with plugging externally the offending sea valve and set up pumps to de-water the engine room. It was also determined that they should remove for full overhaul all electric motors as they became accessible. We then departed.
De-Watering of the Engine Room progressed slowly. Everywhere and everything was covered with a combined film of fuel oil and lube oil. After approx. 60 hours we were informed that the level of water was approaching the bottom plate level. Ron and myself wishing to be present when the strainer was uncovered arrived on the ship at 0200 suitably dressed in waterproof coveralls and proceeded to the lower engine room level. No one else was present! Almost in sync with our arrival at the strainer location the water level dropped below the top of the strainer.
This was what we observed.
1. Strainer Cover completely off and hanging from a chain-fall.
2. All nuts from strainer cover studs removed.
3. Main Sea Valve was indeed a "left hand valve" - (turn anti-clockwise to shut) - was in the fully open position.
Obviously the reason for the engine room flooding was that the Engineers performing the strainer cleaning had assumed the valve was fully shut.
It is always easy to second guess during these examinations but we had to make an official report.
a) The Strainer was fitted with a test cock - was it used?
b) Why were all the nuts removed from the strainer cover retaining studs? Normal practice is to slacken back nuts and "crack" open strainer cover initially.
c) Why were they not aware that it was a "left hand valve."
We later discovered that the ship had dry-docked recently in Europe for a scheduled docking and the subject valve was found to beyond repair. It was replaced with a "left hand valve" which was to be replaced with the correct type valve as soon as possible.
Next problem was the main interest to BP US, namely discharging the cargo. However they gave us one major proviso - the cargo had to be discharged with tanks inerted as per BP Regulations! Capt. Tim Plummer spent several days searching the area for a Portable IG Generator of adequate size - but proved successful and the unit was transported to Halifax.
Next problem was cargo pumps as the ships own pumps were turbine driven. However for a reason that I guess will forever be unknown to myself we discovered she was also fitted with a small cargo pump powered by a diesel engine . The prime mover for this pump was de-watered and serviced and proved operational.
At this time I was dispatched to another investigation in Alaska and can only state that the cargo was eventually discharged in Halifax either into a shore pipeline or barges or smaller tankers??
In conclusion my thoughts have always returned to two items I had never seen on board tankers before - "a left handed valve" and a "diesel driven cargo pump."
I would be very interested in any Denholm staff that are familiar with this incident and who could post more information on this forum.
I have tried to be as brief as possible.
Many Thanks - Roger
I'm an ex Caltex mate and would like to know how it is possible to loosen a plate without the water spurting out. I can't see how it could be possible to get all the nuts off without getting very wet, beforehand. That is a very strange story.
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  #7  
Old 27th November 2012, 15:22
chadburn chadburn is offline  
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I do't know about that Split, it depend's on the design of the cover and the jointing, although I have not been in trouble as described I have come across rubber insertion joint's that had to be jacked apart or split with a couple of Fox Wedges before any water under pressure (due to a blockage) leaked out.
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Old 27th November 2012, 15:29
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Split. After a long period of time the cover was probably stuck to the rubber jointing between the valve flange and actual cover. The engine room staff must have removed all the nuts ( very bad practice) then driven a wedge between the flange and cover in order to free the cover, not realising the they had full sea pressure under the cover.
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Old 27th November 2012, 16:52
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I understand a Shell tanker sank alongside in similar circumstances - the version I heard was a blank flange on a sea chest was removed by a Junior Engineer instead of a void space manhole. Anyone got the real story?
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Old 27th November 2012, 18:04
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Split. After a long period of time the cover was probably stuck to the rubber jointing between the valve flange and actual cover. The engine room staff must have removed all the nuts ( very bad practice) then driven a wedge between the flange and cover in order to free the cover, not realising the they had full sea pressure under the cover.
Yes, I see how it could have happened, now. Thanks. I can imagine the pandemonium!
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Old 28th November 2012, 16:03
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That certainly seem's to have been possibly the case on HMS Endurance which came to grief a couple of year's ago when an "unusual" v/v (compared to the other v/v,s in the Engineroom according to a Report) was fitted on refit and caught them out flooding the Engineroom disabling her.
Something rings a bell about it being an air operated valve and it was either air to close, or the airlines had been connected the wrong way round, if so perhaps the actuator did not have remote indicator lights.

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Old 28th November 2012, 17:49
chadburn chadburn is offline  
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If I remember correctly it appeared that because it was again an "unusual" v/v compared to other's in the Engineroom which the Crew were familiar with the air-line was fitted on to the wrong side (after a Watch Change) the v/v opened and that was it. They did as far as I remember send a Diver down to connect the air-line correctly but he could not get near it. It's interesting that there has been no decision on what is happening to the vessel despite the incident happening some time ago. Unless someone know's different of course!!
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Old 29th November 2012, 15:56
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Beyond economic repair I guess, hard to believe, though I guess repair would have been more viable if they had got in smartish after the sinking.

If we are corect it confirms once again, if you remove it mark where it comes from.

2G

Last edited by twogrumpy; 29th November 2012 at 15:58..
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Old 29th November 2012, 16:02
chadburn chadburn is offline  
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Beyond economic repair I guess, hard to believe, though I guess repair would have been more viable if they had got in smartish after the sinking.

2G
2G,They were already in there but the water pressure and the water temp (they were in the Southernmost Atlantic) beat them unfortunatly.
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Old 29th November 2012, 17:34
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While I was in Diego Garcia on a another USL ship the American Trojan had a similar Engine Room Flooding when cleaning the Main Engine Lube Oil Coolers. In the morning one of the Main Lube Oil Coolers was secured and the plates removed to clean the water side. After breaking for lunch the unlicensed personnel arrived in the Engine Room before the First Assistant Engineer and the other engineers arrived. For some reason instead of waiting for the Officer's the assembled crew decided to get the other cooler ready for cleaning. I am not sure if the crew opened the plates on the other cooler or opened the sea water valves on the cooler that was still opened. The end result was the water reached the 30 foot level in the Engine Room before the valves could be closed.

The American Trojan had it's Engine Room and machinery dewatered and cleaned and went back in service for about a year.

Joe
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Old 29th November 2012, 17:40
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While I was in Diego Garcia on a another USL ship the American Trojan had a similar Engine Room Flooding when cleaning the Main Engine Lube Oil Coolers. In the morning one of the Main Lube Oil Coolers was secured and the plates removed to clean the water side. After breaking for lunch the unlicensed personnel arrived in the Engine Room before the First Assistant Engineer and the other engineers arrived. For some reason instead of waiting for the Officer's the assembled crew decided to get the other cooler ready for cleaning. I am not sure if the crew opened the plates on the other cooler or opened the sea water valves on the cooler that was still opened. The end result was the water reached the 30 foot level in the Engine Room before the valves could be closed.

The American Trojan had it's Engine Room and machinery dewatered and cleaned and went back in service for about a year.

Joe
Joe, the problem with the vessel I mentioned is that she is Diesel/Electric and fairly old for any spare's.
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Old 29th November 2012, 19:46
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Number 2: Tanker Almizar

No. 2 - TANKER "ALMIZAR"
I was dispatched from Ohio to Lisbon to discover the facts about this vessel on charter to BP US in 1982.
This catastrophe involved a tank structure failure. I do not remember if it was a steam or motor driven ship or what tonnage it was, (probably about 70,000 tons.)
Upon arrival in Lisbon the BP agent eventually arranged for a Senior Lloyds Surveyor and myself to be taken out to the ship. I took several pictures of the Port side of the ship as we came alongside, as the deck in way I believe of Number two Port ballast tank was sagging over an approx. fifty foot length and there was a huge hole in the ships side (ballast tank).
The reception as usual under such circumstances was extremely "frosty" especially from the Master who if I remember correctly was German. The vessel had discharged her last cargo in Northern Europe and was on passage to the Mediterranean. None of the Officers or Crew would discuss the failure with me and tried to stop me from taking photographs without success. The Lloyds Surveyor and myself were in the main left to ourselves. At one time we were both standing next to the open tank hatch looking down into the tank and commenting to each other that the tank ladder was missing and all we could see was just bright blue water. It was then that I exclaimed " There is no xxxxxx tank structure at all and that is why the deck is sagging so drastically." We immediately retreated to safer deck structure. The Senior Lloyds Surveyor was becoming increasingly embarrassed by the turn of events as apparently it was not long since this vessel had been through a full tank survey!!
Receiving little or (none) info from the Captain we decided to return to the agency and contact our relevant superiors. Naturally my superiors and especially the BP US Chartering Manager were in disbelief and told me to stay in a hotel until they contacted me. I never saw the Lloyds Surveyor again. Approx. two days later I was informed by BP US that a BP London Steel Surveyor would be joining me at the hotel and that the Almizar would proceed to a dry-dock in Oporto. The BP London Steel Surveyor duly arrived and was none other than Mick Medhurst or "Metal Mickey" as he was better known as.(I knew Mick from my time in BP London Office) Mick was astonished at what I had to tell him. He advised that we were to go by car to Oporto to examine the ship when she was on the blocks.
I must comment here that the car journey from Lisbon to Oporto( 2 to 3 hours if I remember) was by far the worst car journey I have ever experienced and have no idea how we survived! It was a two lane road with plenty of traffic both ways and the drivers sole intention appeared to be to see how close he could come to a collision with oncoming traffic every time he went into his "overtake mode." It was unbelievable and gives me nightmares to this day.
Anyway we somehow arrived and checked into another hotel and contacted the local agency who supplied another shock. Only I was allowed to examine the ship as It was on Charter to BP US and not BP UK. Mick was very shortly on his way back to London. Approx two days later I was advised that the ship was on the blocks and I could examine it but take no photographs at all!!!
I was driven into the dockyard and dropped off next to the dry-dock which was almost completely void of people except for a couple of shipyard workers. I very quickly, camera in hand proceeded to the dry-dock floor and commenced taking as many pictures as possible of the incredible sight confronting me. I believe I used six or seven rolls of film and still have the photos thirty years later. They have been used at many presentations and copies given to BP London. The best photos were made into slides and have proved difficult to get onto the Ship Nostalgia forum but I hope the overall impression is as surprising to you as it was to me at the time.
The close up examination revealed that the Number 2 Port Ballast Tank structure was almost all missing and had literally fallen off the ship. All that remained was the deck plating and partial floor structure. Remains of the web frames attached to the longitudinal bulkhead were severely wasted. This was a total corrosion failure and I still wonder what the condition the other ballast tanks on the vessel were like. Odds are in a very similar condition.
I returned to the hotel and departed for the US shortly after this inspection - complete with rolls of undeveloped film.
Readers are probably wondering, with good reason, what sort of pre-charter inspection was completed on this vessel. Up until the early eighties it was very normal for oil companies to complete pre-charter inspections with a Deck and Engineer Superintendent working as a team inspecting the whole vessel and vessel records for overall condition but paying little attention to cargo or ballast tank structure but relying on Class Survey Records for such information.
This had to change and it certainly did. I will not comment further on the inspection aspect but I am sure Ship Nostalgia Members will.
Regards - Roger
Attached Images
File Type: jpg Autumn 2010.jpg (95.0 KB, 85 views)
File Type: jpg Almizar(x).jpg (135.3 KB, 91 views)
File Type: jpg Almizar 11-26-12.JPG (420.8 KB, 96 views)
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Old 29th November 2012, 21:03
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Joe, the problem with the vessel I mentioned is that she is Diesel/Electric and fairly old for any spare's.
Chadburn

My intention was to add a stupid flooding of an engine room and not one's ability to clean up and put a ship back into service.

The American Trojan was an old Break Bulk Steam Ship with electric regulating valves instead of the normal pneumatic and well past her prime. Most of the controls had to be replaced with new equipment like you said no spares.

I do not think the company would have cleaned up the Engine Room if the vessel wasn't one of the Preposition Cargo Ships carrying Bombs and Ammunition for the US Army.

At the time it was very hard to get any US ship that was self sufficient that could unload its cargo with it's own cargo gear. Most of the ships of that size were either converted to full container service or working under long term trade.

The ships that USL (United States Lines) had under long term contracts with the US Government was keeping the company afloat at the time. USL bought Moore Mac Lines Ships and Cargo Operations and was in a freight war trying to keep the slow moving Econ Class Ships full of freight.

The lesson the USL did not realize until they lost was do not start a freight war with Evergreen. Especially when you have cash flow problems due to big mortgages on the new ships and buying out other companies.

In the long term the American Trojan was never the same afterwards and I do not think USL made back the money they poured into her.

Joe
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Old 1st December 2012, 14:34
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ChiefCharles report of Almizar is a sad condemnation of a major oil company's lack of scruples in the operation of anything that is subcontracted to another company.

Almizar was in a lamentable condition in 1980, two years before his experience, according to a post by another member, Shipmate4147 on a thread entitled "My Last Ship" in Jan 2011.

BP must have known about that ship, just as it turned a blind eye to what went on on Piper Alpha, in the Gulf of Mexice.
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Old 1st December 2012, 15:05
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ChiefCharles report of Almizar is a sad condemnation of a major oil company's lack of scruples in the operation of anything that is subcontracted to another company.

Almizar was in a lamentable condition in 1980, two years before his experience, according to a post by another member, Shipmate4147 on a thread entitled "My Last Ship" in Jan 2011.

BP must have known about that ship, just as it turned a blind eye to what went on on Piper Alpha, in the Gulf of Mexice.
No different to what the rest of the oil companies got up to at the time.
I should point out that Piper Alpha was not a BP platform, it was owned and run by Occidental Petroleum, a US company.
As for the Gulf of Mexico, there are a LOT of politics involved in the apportioning of 'blame' in regards that incident. The company which owned and ran the rig is a US outfit, a company too small to cover the litigation and fines apportioned. This all happened when the US Govt was somewhat low in the popularity stakes, handily, so the next thing you see is their President lambasting 'British Petroleum' (the company has been known as BP since 2000) and going to town on those foreign devils, who handily (again) have a much larger bank balance available to be punished, and so gain some political points amongst the US electorate.
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Old 1st December 2012, 15:43
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Well said James, plenty of politics going on, Pres. deep in the doo doo, and good old 'British Petroleum' came along to hang his baggage on.

Comment was passed not long after the incident when BP started to pay out, "good job it was not an American company as we would still be arguing through the courts to get anything."

Do not take this as anti American, I would rather go with them than our so called brothers in the failing EU.

2G
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Old 1st December 2012, 17:11
Hamish Mackintosh Hamish Mackintosh is offline  
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Well said James, plenty of politics going on, Pres. deep in the doo doo, and good old 'British Petroleum' came along to hang his baggage on.

Comment was passed not long after the incident when BP started to pay out, "good job it was not an American company as we would still be arguing through the courts to get anything."

Do not take this as anti American, I would rather go with them than our so called brothers in the failing EU.

2G
Yes the Exxon Valdiz(?) is a prime example, most of that damage was never paid for,and never wii be!
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  #23  
Old 1st December 2012, 17:52
Split Split is offline  
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I was not blaming BP, only. I know that they did not know about how Piper Alpha was run, I mean, none of us knew, did we? Forgive me, if I say that with tongue in cheek. That is why they are paying all those billions to the clean up fund.

Sorry about going off topic on this one. Just a coincidence that I thought of it at the same time.
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  #24  
Old 1st December 2012, 20:42
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James_C James_C is offline   SN Supporter
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Split View Post
I was not blaming BP, only. I know that they did not know about how Piper Alpha was run, I mean, none of us knew, did we? Forgive me, if I say that with tongue in cheek. That is why they are paying all those billions to the clean up fund.

Sorry about going off topic on this one. Just a coincidence that I thought of it at the same time.
One of the (many) reasons they are paying all those billions into the clean up fund, save for the media/political scapegoating, is that if they do not, then their future in North America would likely be non existent.
A comparison between how Exxon and BP have been treated by the US Govt and regulatory authorities, and indeed how those two companies responded to their respective incidents is quite telling indeed.
I am no fan whatsoever of the current incarnation of BP, in fact I could fill many a page of this site giving chapter and verse of everything that is wrong with them, with plenty of bitterness and bile thrown in. However in this case I tend to think they have been quite poorly treated.
It is no accident that most of BP's recent tales of woe have emanated from the USA, all of them involving the assets and people of Amoco, the US oil company taken over in 1999 and now restyled 'BP America'.
I leave you to draw your own conclusions from that.
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  #25  
Old 2nd December 2012, 01:11
Tony Maskell Tony Maskell is offline  
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To go back to the start of this thread: "Left Hand Valves" I served on the British Pride (1931 to 1955) in 1953, she had been damaged in WWII and repaired in the USA, and a number of deck valves to the pipeline system had been replaced by American valves which were the reverse of the existing ones, namely they were left handed valves, this used to caused some concern when setting up the tanks for multiple grade cargoes and especially when loading, sometimes 3 grades at once - yes we did have a couple of overflows in Curacao all that time ago.
Tony Maskell
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